Institut für Raumbezogene Informations- und Messtechnik
Hochschule Mainz - University of Applied Sciences

COST Action TD 1201: Colour and Space in Cultural Heritage (COSCH)

Durch interdisziplinäre Zusammenarbeit auf europäischer Ebene soll eine neue, unabhängige Wissensbasis geschaffen werden, um mittels bestehender und neu zu entwickelnder optischer Messtechniken die Dokumentation des europäischen Kulturerbes besser unterstützen zu können.
Motivation: 
So ist das Hauptziel dieser COST-Action, die Forschung, Entwicklung und Anwendung optischer Messtechniken entsprechend den Bedürfnissen des Kulturellen Erbes zu fördern.

Weitere Ziele dieser Aktion sind:

1. (a) Das Wissen über Potenziale, Beschränkungen, Voraussetzungen und praktische Aspekte über präzise spektrale und räumliche Instrumente zu vertiefen.
(b) Das Forschen und Veröffentlichen von Fallstudien über die Anwendung der neuesten spektralen und raumbezogenen Technologien.
(c) Einen kritischen Ăśberblick ĂĽber die derzeitigen spektralen und raumbezogenen Technologien bei der Dokumentation von Kulturerbeobjekten bereitzustellen.
(d) FĂĽr Institute und Experten, die unser kulturelles Erbe schĂĽtzen, eine Grundlage fĂĽr die optimierte Nutzung spektraler und raumbezogener Technologien zu schaffen.

2. Die Analyse des beidseitigen Nutzens der spektralen und raumbezogenen Messtechniken und die Analyse des Mehrwertes des kombinierten Nutzens.

3. (a) Die Bildung eines nachhaltigen europäischen Netzwerkes von Forschern, Lösungsanbietern, Endnutzern und Industriepartnern im Bereich der optischen Messtechniken für die Dokumentation, Bestandserhaltung und Rekonstruierung.
(b) Die Anregung von interdisziplinären Forschungsprojekten auf nationaler, bilateraler und europäischer Ebene.
(c) Die Identifikation und weitere Entwicklung von Wissenszentren innerhalb des Partnernetzwerks fĂĽr Bildungsservices und ForschungsunterstĂĽtzung.
(d) Die Förderung der Mobilität von Nachwuchsforschern.

4. Die Entwicklung von Empfehlungen und Richtlinien für Institute und Experten, die unser kulturelles Erbe schützen, zur Bestimmung minimaler räumlicher Auflösungen und Messunsicherheiten für eine Auswahl von Materialien abhängig vom Dokumentationszweck (z. B. Visualisierung und Zustandsbewertung).
Activities: 
Zur Antragsstellung des Projekts erarbeitete das i3mainz einen umfangreichen Antrag, der begutachtet und als ausgesprochen förderungswürdig erachtet wurde. Bis zum Kick-Off-Meeting unterzeichneten bereits 20 Parteien (Wissenschaftler aus 20 verschiedenen europäischen Ländern) das Memorandum of Understanding.

Auf der Euromed 2012 im Oktober 2012 auf Zypern präsentierte Prof. Dr.-Ing. Frank Boochs erstmals das Vorhaben der COST Action.

Am 7. November startete das Projekt offiziell in Brüssel. Die Vertreter der bereits unterzeichneten Länder (das so genannte Management Committee) wählte Prof. Dr.-Ing. Boochs zum Chair der Action und bestimmte die HS Mainz zum Grant Holder. Das Projekt ist unterteilt in eine Leitungsebene (Management Committee), dem der Chair und der Vice-Chair vorsitzen, und fünf Arbeitsgruppen (Working Groups), welche sich entsprechend den folgenden Forschungsschwerpunkte bilden:

WG 1: Spectral object documentation;
WG 2: Spatial object documentation,
WG 3: Algorithms and procedures,
WG 4: Analysis and restoration of CH surfaces and objects,
WG 5: Visualisation of CH objects and its dissemination

Durch zahlreiche Projektaktivitäten wird ein Netzwerk auf europäischer Ebene gebildet:
(a) Bei regelmäßigen WG-Meetings tauschen sich die Projektteilnehmer aus und erarbeiten gemeinsam die Ziele der Forschungsschwerpunkte. Regelmäßig werden entsprechende Zwischenergebnisse präsentiert.
(b) MC-Meetings dienen der Projektleitung dazu, die strategische Projektplanung zu diskutieren, anstehende Entscheidungen zu treffen und die Fortschritte innerhalb der WGs und die Veröffentlichungen der Aktivitäten zu kontrollieren. Weiterhin wird in den Meetings über Short Term Scientific Missions, Workshops und Training Schools entschieden.
(c) Short Term Scientific Missions (STSMs) sollen die Zusammenarbeit zwischen Wissenschaftlern unterschiedlicher Länder und Fakultäten fördern und praktisches sowie theoretisches Wissen auf individueller Basis vermitteln.
(d) Training Schools (TS) ermöglichen einer beschränkten Anzahl interessierter Wissenschaftler, an einem erfahrenen Wissenszentrum konzentriert Spezialkenntnisse zu erwerben. Die Training Schools geben den Teilnehmern in der Folge die Möglichkeit, neues Wissen in Themen anderer Disziplinen zum Schutz des Kulturellen Erbes einzubringen.
(e) Alle Aktivitäten und Ergebnisse werden auf der interaktiven Action Webseite gesammelt und veröffentlicht: www.cosch.info.

Basic Information

Period:     01.11.2012 - 30.11.2016
Participants:
Cooperation:
  • – EU-COST
Titelbild:
  • COSCH
,

Nachrichten

Ashish Karmacharya, Stefanie Wefers und Frank Boochs wurden fĂĽr ihr Paper mit dem Titel "Knowledge Based Recommendation on Optimal Spectral and Spatial...

Am 10. und 11. Oktober 2016 ging die EU COST Action „Colour and Space in Cultural Heritage (COSCH)“ mit der Abschlusskonferenz "Guides to good Practice in...

Professor Dr. Frank Boochs gewann gemeinsam mit einem Team international und interdisziplinär zusammengestellter Wissenschaftler aus dem COSCH-Umfeld den...

Im Rahmen des europaweiten Projekts „Colour and Space in Cultural Heritage“ (COSCH) fand vom 31.März bis 02.April...

Related Projects

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Publikationen

COSCH - Vier Jahre interdisziplinärer Dialog zum Nutzen des kulturellen Erbes.

2017

RTF

KulturBetrieb - Magazin für innovative und wirtschaftliche Lösungen in Museen, Bibliotheken und Archiven







Ontology-based Knowledge Representation for Recommendation of Optimal Recording Strategies - Photogrammetry and Laser Scanning as Examples.

2017

RTF

gis.Science

Experts’ knowledge about optical technologies for spatial and spectral recording is logically structured and stored in an ontology-based knowledge representation with the aim to provide objective recommendations for recording strategies. Besides operational functionalities and technical parameters such as measurement principles, instruments, and setups further factors such as the targeted application, data, physical characteristics of the object, and external influences are considered creating a holistic view on spectral and spatial recording strategies. Through this approach impacting factors on the technologies and generated data are identified. Semantic technologies allow to flexibly store this knowledge in a hierarchical class structure with dependencies, interrelations and description logic statements. Through an inference system the knowledge can be retrieved adapted to individual needs.


How to optimally record cultural heritage objects? Decision support through connected knowledge.

2017

RTF

EVA Berlin 2017. Elektronische Medien & Kunst, Kultur und Historie 24. Berliner Veranstaltung der internationalen EVA-Serie Electronic Media and Visual Arts, 2017

Optical recording of material cultural heritage (CH) is a multidisciplinary activity where the understanding of cross-disciplinary semantics is vital for a successful completion. In many cases, a lack of understanding of transdisciplinary semantics slows this process down. The end users who are mostly humanities experts lack the technical knowledge of spatial and spectral recording and could therefore demand more than what is actually required or sufficient for the intended CH application. The negotiations between technical experts and the end users are a tedious process. We present a semantic-based decision support system, COSCHKR, that employs reasoning and recommends optimal recording technology(ies) according to the application requirements of the recorded and processed data. COSCHKR is an ontology-based knowledge model that implies the development of semantic technologies within the Semantic Web framework. It represents formalized knowledge of the disciplines involved in the process of optical recording of material CH. The paper describes the applicability of the model in spatial, spectral, and visualization applications and summarises current possibilities and challenges.


Digital 3D reconstructed models A proposition for structuring visualisation workflows using semantic technologies for recommendations

2017

RTF

Studies in Digital Heritage

It is common for cultural heritage applications to use spatial and/or spectral data for documentation, analysis and visualisation. Knowledge on data requirements coming from the cultural heritage application and technical alternatives to generate the required data based on object characteristics and other influencings factors paves the way for the optimal selection of a recording technology. It is a collaborative process requiring knowledge of experts from cultural heritage domains and technical domains. Currently, this knowledge is structured and stored in an ontology (so-called COSCHKR). It has the purpose to support CH experts not familiar with technologies through prescribing an optimal spatial or spectral recording strategy adapted to the physical characteristics of the cultural heritage object and the data requirements of the targeted CH application. The creation of digital 3D reconstructed models for analysis and visualisation purposes is getting more and more common within humanities disciplines. Therefore, an implementation of mechanisms involved in visualisation applications into this ontology would have huge benefits in creating a powerful recommendation solution. A structured view on such project workflows facilitates a rough match with the existing knowledge representation. Illustrating the overall structure of COSCHKR, this paper addresses and discusses challenges in structuring the processes of cultural heritage visualisation and implementing these into the ontology.


Digital 3D reconstructed models: Using semantic technologies for recommendations in visualization applications

2017

RTF

Studies in Digital Heritage







An Interdisciplinary Discussion of the Terminologies used in Cultural Heritage Research

2017

RTF

A. Bentkowska-Kafel, L. MacDonald (eds), Digtial Techniques for Documenting and Preserving Cultural Heritage.

Accuracy, Artefact, Feature, Precision, Reconstruction, Resolution, Texture, Uncertainty are words central to many discussions of the documentation of CH. This chapter charts the interdisciplinary discussion towards a common understanding of terminologies used in CH. It is a discussion that recognizes critical differences or common misuse, and aims to contribute to a shared understanding that may be useful for all knowledge domains in the field.


Wall Paintings in the Château de Germolles: An Interdisciplinary Project for the Rediscovery of a Unique Fourteenth-Century Decoration

2017

RTF

A. Bentkowska-Kafel, L. MacDonald (eds), Digtial Techniques for Documenting and Preserving Cultural Heritage

The aim of this study was to examine and document the wall paintings in the Château de Germolles. Situated in Burgundy, France, Germolles is the best preserved residence of the Dukes of Burgundy and was listed as a monument of national importance in 1989.
The medieval wall decoration of the Château de Germolles was rediscovered under the nineteenth-century plasters during World War II. Medieval accounts of the château provide a detailed list of the materials acquired to make the mural decoration, but this list is incongruous when compared with the current appearance of the paintings. The discrepancy between the archival and material evidence, and also the need to understand the complexity of the painting technique used were the main motivations for undertaking the case study described in this chapter. Imaging alongside more traditional examination techniques were utilized to record and document the mural decoration. The objectives of the case study were to distinguish the original materials from those applied during restoration, identify those materials, and correlate them with the archives. We also tried to understand the medieval painting techniques used and assess the condition of the paintings and stabilization requirements. Finally we aimed to find a sustainable solution for the management of the various types of data collected. Various techniques and investigations offered valuable insights into the materials and the painting technique used. To improve visitor experience, based on the information gained in the course of this study, a 3D virtual representation of the original decoration is currently proposed for display to the public visiting the Château de Germolles.


Ontology-Based Structuring of Spectral and Spatial Recording Strategies for Cultural Heritage Assets: Background, State of Affairs, and Future Perspectives

2017

RTF

A. Bentkowska-Kafel, L. MacDonald (eds), Digtial Techniques for Documenting and Preserving Cultural Heritage

The activities of COSCH community and the disciplines it represents were as diverse as they could possibly be in research into cultural heritage. To achieve common goals it was of utmost importance to have a common understanding of these diverse activities and disciplines. Work on the COSCH Knowledge Representation, or COSCHKR, was undertaken to develop a common semantic base representing different disciplines and to facilitate communication within the Action. The COSCHKR is an ontology-based inference model, guided by inference rules that provide a semantic bridge between various interdisciplinary activities involved in non-invasive technical documentation of material cultural heritage. The model is intended to support humanities experts by recommending optimal spatial and spectral techniques. The model may also be used by technology experts to compare their own solutions with the ones recommended through COSCHKR, and to understand why they may differ.
In this chapter we present the methods adopted for designing the COSCHKR and the steps in the development of the inference model. The difficulties in maintaining a common level of understanding within the diverse disciplines during the knowledge acquisition process are discussed. We present mechanisms and methods of information collection, its structuring, and aligning, to formulate different axioms and theorems within the model. The design and development of COSCHKR was based on an iterative procedure where the gathered knowledge was first verified with the group of experts before it was processed. This verification mechanism was important for the reliability of the model, ensuring technical consistency. This chapter highlights the importance of these iterative mechanisms in the validation of knowledge gathered and then information populated inside the knowledge base.


Technical study of Germolles’ wall paintings: the input of imaging technique

2016

RTF

Virtual Archaeology Review

The Château de Germolles is one of the rare palaces in France dating from the 14 th century. The noble floor is decorated with wall paintings that are a unique example of courtly love spirit that infused the princely courts of the time. After being concealed sometime in the 19 th century, the paintings were rediscovered and uncovered in the middle of the 20 th century and partly restored at the end of the 1990s. No scientific documentation accompanied these interventions and important questions, such as the level of authenticity of the mural decorations and the original painting technique(s) used in the medieval times remained unanswered. The combined scientific and financial supports of COSCH COST Action and DRAC-Burgundy enabled to study Germolles' wall paintings using some of the most innovative imaging and analytical techniques and to address some of the questions raised. The study provided significant information on the material used in the medieval times and on the conservation condition of the paintings. The data collected is vast and varied and exposed the owners of the property to the challenges of data management.


Development of a platform recommending 3D and spectral digitisation strategies.

2016

RTF

Virtual Archaeology Review

Spatial and spectral recording of cultural heritage objects is a complex task including data acquisition, processing and analysis involving different technical disciplines. Additionally, the development of a suitable digitisation strategy satisfying the expectations of the humanities experts needs an interdisciplinary dialogue often suffering from misunderstanding and knowledge gaps on both the technical and humanities sides. Through a concerted discussion, experts from the cultural heritage and technical domains currently develop a so-called COSCH KR (Colour and Space in Cultural Heritage Knowledge Representation) platform that will give recommendations for spatial and spectral recording strategies adapted to the needs of the cultural heritage application. The platform will make use of an ontology through which the relevant parameters of the different domains involved in the recording, processing, analysis, and dissemination of cultural heritage objects are hierarchically structured and related through rule-based dependencies. Background and basis for this ontology is the fact that a deterministic relation exists between (1) the requirements of a cultural heritage application on spatial, spectral, as well as visual digital information of a cultural heritage object which itself has concrete physical characteristics and (2) the technical possibilities of the spectral and spatial recording devices. Through a case study which deals with the deformation analysis of wooden samples of cultural heritage artefacts, this deterministic relationship is illustrated explaining the overall structure and development of the ontology. The aim of the COSCH KR platform is to support cultural heritage experts finding the best suitable recording strategy for their often unique physical cultural heritage object and research question. The platform will support them and will make them aware of the relevant parameters and limitations of the recording strategy with respect to the characteristics of the cultural heritage object, external influences, application, recording devices, and data.


Digital 3D Reconstructed Models – Structuring Visualisation Project Workflows

2016

RTF

igital Heritage. Progress in Cultural Heritage: Documentation, Preservation, and Protection 6th International Conference, EuroMed 2016, Nicosia, Cyprus, October 31 – November 5, 2016, Proceedings, Part I.

Cultural Heritage (CH) visualisations have to be understood as a combination of research sources, the contemporary historical and cultural context (Zeitgeist), project background and work process. All available information is collected, consolidated, filtered and assembled into a coherent picture. In case of digital 3D reconstructed models, the result is a digital data set that can be processed for different application fields. They are understood as a result of a complex creative process and as a synthesis of a CH research project, its CH context, the available research source material, and the modeling process itself. For all visualisation types in CH different conditions, factors, and basic rules apply to achieve a high quality result. Two examples are presented illustrating the structured view on visualisation projects as such. This paper seeks to differentiate the various research sources being the basis for digital 3D reconstructed models and defines work phases allowing a quality assessment. Furthermore, the potentials of including this structured view into the ontology COSCHKR currently under development is discussed. In combindation with traditional guidelines COSCHKR platform could open up new and flexible approaches.


Interdisciplinary Dialogue Towards an Enhanced Understanding of Optical Techniques for Recording Material Cultural Heritage - Results of a COST Action

2016

RTF

C. E. Catalano, L. De Luca (eds): Proceedings EUROGRAPHICS Workshop on Graphics and Cultural Heritage (2016), Genova, Italy, pp. 219-222

The COST Transdomain Action TD1201, Colour and Space in Cultural Heritage [COSb], 2012-2016, contributes to the conservation and preservation of cultural heritage (CH) by enhancing shared understanding, between experts from various disciplines, of the spectral and spatial recording of physical CH objects. Optimal recording, adapted to the requirements of a CH application, should involve experts from multiple disciplines and industries. Such an interdisciplinary approach is necessary "in order to protect, preserve, analyze, understand, model, virtually reproduce, document and publish important CH in Europe and beyond" [COSa]. In order to fulfil this goal, experts from 28 European countries entered into a multidisciplinary dialogue trying to establish a common understanding of spatial and spectral recording techniques best suited for particular CH applications. Several COSCH groups worked on the characterisation of spatial and spectral recording techniques; the use of algorithms and processing chains; and requirements of analysis, restoration and visualisation of CH surfaces and objects. A range of possible applications of optical techniques, now available to recording and examination of CH objects, have been tested through six COSCH case studies [BKM17]. These projects have exposed the challenges of common understanding of the processes involved, and differences in disciplinary research needs and methods. A number of issues have been identified, sometimes as basic as lack of common specialist terminology and relevant technical standards. The complexity of the field became apparent in the course of designing COSCHKR, ontological knowledge representation, which employs semantic technologies. After four years of interdisciplinary dialogue, COSCH leaves a legacy that will help the dialogue to continue, technology to develop, and specialist training to better respond to the actual needs of the interdisciplinary CH research communities.


Semantic based Structuring of 3D technologies for their optimized use in cultural heritage documentation.

2015

RTF

43rd Conference of Computer Applications and Quantitative Methods in Archaeology, CAA 2015, Siena, Book of Abstracts.

Constant technological progress results in new possibilities to produce reliable and rich spatial data of cultural heritage objects: for instance, museums have started to digitize their collections, more and more archaeological excavations or features and entire CH buildings have been documented in 3D. It is now necessary to establish connections among different CH disciplines and several technical disciplines, and to work on collaborative projects.

Technicians and CH experts together evaluate the best technique for specific CH object documentation, implementation and use. This discussion arises from the knowledge gaps of each counterpart in respect to the other discipline. Projects such as Agora 3D (see below) clearly demonstrate the need for an evaluation of the different available techniques.

In order to make optimal use of these technological capabilities, it is important to identify and name the information required to best serve the reasoning processes in these application fields. Correspondingly it is necessary to know about the characteristics of digitization techniques producing the content adapted to the needs of the applications. Due to the considerable complexity of instruments and processes producing the data, it is helpful to have a clear structure which relates the capabilities of the instruments to the requirements of the applications.

The COST Action TD1201 “Colour and Space in Cultural Heritage (COSCH)” takes this need into account, aiming to enhance the understanding among these disciplines. We will focus on the already listed, structured and evaluated available 3D technologies. At the same time, experts in spectral and CH research started to list, structure, and evaluate their knowledge. These evaluations yield a structure of technologies, and ultimately the techniques and instruments using their characteristics. The understanding of these characteristics provides insights for their potential applications. The ontology knowledge model accessible through so-called “COSCHKR App” provides a knowledge structure. It benefits from the development of semantic technologies from the Semantic Web framework. Semantics, which provide meanings, are captured through the conceptual structure and are defined through the ontology. The overall aim of this ontology is the development of a software tool to enable a better understanding of data acquisition techniques and their support to optimally realize cultural heritage applications.


COSCH knowledge schema – an introduction

2014

RTF

ns







Characterisation of Spatial Techniques for Optimised Use in Cultural Heritage Documentation.

2014

RTF

Digital Heritage Progress in Cultural Heritage: Documentation, Preservation, and Protection. 5th International Conference, EuroMed 2014 Limassol, Cyprus, November 3-8, 2014 Proceedings

Constant technological progress results in new possibilities to produce reliable and rich spatial data of cultural heritage objects. In order to make optimal use of these capabilities, it is important to identify and name the information required to best serve the reasoning processes in these application fields. Correspondingly it is necessary to know about the characteristics of digitization techniques producing the content adapted to the needs of the applications. Due to the considerable complexity of instruments and processes producing the data, it is helpful to have a clear structure which relates the capabilities of the instruments to the requirements of the applications. This paper addresses this topic and shows a way of structuring spatial techniques as well as how this structure can be related to applications in the field of cultural heritage.


Colour and Space in Cultural Heritage: Key Questions in 3D Optical Documentation of Material Culture for Conservation

2014

RTF

5th International Conference, EuroMed 2014, Limassol, Cyprus, November 3-8

The paper introduces some key interdisciplinary questions concerning the development of optical measuring techniques and electronic imaging applied to documentation and presentation of artefacts, as identified through the work of Colour and Space in Cultural Heritage (www.COSCH.info), a trans-domain European Action (TD1201) in the area of Materials, Physics and Nanosciences (MPNS) supported, since 2013, by the European Cooperation in Science and Technology http://www.cost.eu/domains_actions/mpns/Actions/ TD1201. Some 125 international researchers and professionals participate in COSCH activities which have been organised around six main subjects: (1) spectral object documentation; (2) spatial object documentation; (3) algorithms and procedures; (4) analysis and restoration of cultural heritage surfaces and objects; (5) visualisation of cultural heritage objects and its dissemination; and (6) the semantic development of the COSCH Knowledge Representation.

The Authors outline and illustrate the approaches adopted by COSCH. They indicate future work that is needed to resolve the identified scientific, technical and semantic questions, as well as challenges of interdisciplinary communication, to ensure a wider adoption of specialist technologies and enhanced standards in 3D documentation of material cultural heritage — being a basis for its understanding, conservation, restoration, long-term preservation, study, presentation and wide dissemination.

 


Towards a Knowledge Model to Document and Select Algorithms and Processes in Cultural Heritage.

0

RTF

Traitement et Analyse de l’Information Méthodes et Applications, TAIMA, Hammamed, Tunisia, 11-16 May 2015