Institut für Raumbezogene Informations- und Messtechnik
Hochschule Mainz - University of Applied Sciences

Dr. Stefanie Wefers

Dr. Stefanie Wefers

Fachbereich Technik –
Geoinformatik & Vermessung
Raum: C2.24
Telefon: +49 6131-628-1471
Fax: +49 6131-628-91471

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  • – Wissenschaftliche Mitarbeiterin

Forschung

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Dr. Stefanie Wefers

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Projekte

Ziel des Projekts DikoS ist es, ein Digitalisierungskonzept für unterirdische Bergwerke und obertägige Steinbrüche zu erstellen. Die angestrebten Digitalisate sollen der…
Kurzfassung

Publikationen

How to optimally record cultural heritage objects? Decision support through connected knowledge.

2017

Wefers, S.,
Karmacharya, A.,
Boochs, F.,
Heinz, G.

BibTex

EVA Berlin 2017. Elektronische Medien & Kunst, Kultur und Historie 24. Berliner Veranstaltung der internationalen EVA-Serie Electronic Media and Visual Arts, 2017

Optical recording of material cultural heritage (CH) is a multidisciplinary activity where the understanding of cross-disciplinary semantics is vital for a successful completion. In many cases, a lack of understanding of transdisciplinary semantics slows this process down. The end users who are mostly humanities experts lack the technical knowledge of spatial and spectral recording and could therefore demand more than what is actually required or sufficient for the intended CH application. The negotiations between technical experts and the end users are a tedious process. We present a semantic-based decision support system, COSCHKR, that employs reasoning and recommends optimal recording technology(ies) according to the application requirements of the recorded and processed data. COSCHKR is an ontology-based knowledge model that implies the development of semantic technologies within the Semantic Web framework. It represents formalized knowledge of the disciplines involved in the process of optical recording of material CH. The paper describes the applicability of the model in spatial, spectral, and visualization applications and summarises current possibilities and challenges.


Ontology-based Knowledge Representation for Recommendation of Optimal Recording Strategies - Photogrammetry and Laser Scanning as Examples.

2017

Wefers, S.,
Karmacharya, A.,
Boochs, F.

BibTex

gis.Science

Experts’ knowledge about optical technologies for spatial and spectral recording is logically structured and stored in an ontology-based knowledge representation with the aim to provide objective recommendations for recording strategies. Besides operational functionalities and technical parameters such as measurement principles, instruments, and setups further factors such as the targeted application, data, physical characteristics of the object, and external influences are considered creating a holistic view on spectral and spatial recording strategies. Through this approach impacting factors on the technologies and generated data are identified. Semantic technologies allow to flexibly store this knowledge in a hierarchical class structure with dependencies, interrelations and description logic statements. Through an inference system the knowledge can be retrieved adapted to individual needs.


book review: M. Maříková, Ch. Zschieschang (Hrsg.), Wassermühlen und Wassernutzung im mittelalterlichen Ostmitteleuropa. Forschungen zur Geschichte und Kultur des östlichen Mitteleuropa 50 (Stuttgart 2015)

2017

Wefers, S.

BibTex

Zeitschrift fĂĽr Ostmitteleuropa-Forschung

COSCH - Vier Jahre interdisziplinärer Dialog zum Nutzen des kulturellen Erbes.

2017

Wefers, S.

BibTex

KulturBetrieb - Magazin für innovative und wirtschaftliche Lösungen in Museen, Bibliotheken und Archiven

Knowledge Based Recommendation on Optimal Spectral and Spatial Recording Strategy of Physical Cultural Heritage Objects

2016

Karmacharya, A.,
Wefers, S.,
Boochs, F.

BibTex

SEMAPRO 2016: The 10th Internat. Conference on Advances in Semantic Processing

Ontologies have traditionally been used to represent knowledge of a specific domain. They are also used to provide a base to infer the knowledge present inside them. However, the applications of ontologies within the Cultural Heritage (CH) community have been restricted to providing standard documentation for significant heritage objects. E.g., widely used ontology within CH disciplines, International Committee for Documentation Conceptual Reference Model (CIDOC CRM) is designed to provide standards in documenting archival information of physical CH object. There has been hardly any work relating the objects to their documentation purposes. In this paper, we present the Colour and Space in Cultural Heritage Knowledge Representation (= COSCHKR) ontology – a multi-faceted ontology. With COSCHKR, we present a system that infers inter-woven descriptive semantics of different involved CH disciplines in recording CH objects to recommend optimal spatial and spectral technical solutions to humanities experts and guide through the underlying complexities while recording their objects. It takes numbers of facts into consideration including physical characteristics of the CH objects, the characteristics of their surroundings and even other relevant facts such as budget or staff competence to infer against the characteristics of the technologies for a proper recommendation. In contrast to a typical Recommender System, which does the same for web-based content through stochastic methods, we use descriptive semantics at the concept level.


Interdisciplinary Dialogue Towards an Enhanced Understanding of Optical Techniques for Recording Material Cultural Heritage - Results of a COST Action

2016

Boochs, F.,
Bentkowska-Kafel, A.,
Wefers, S.

BibTex

C. E. Catalano, L. De Luca (eds): Proceedings EUROGRAPHICS Workshop on Graphics and Cultural Heritage (2016), Genova, Italy, pp. 219-222

The COST Transdomain Action TD1201, Colour and Space in Cultural Heritage [COSb], 2012-2016, contributes to the conservation and preservation of cultural heritage (CH) by enhancing shared understanding, between experts from various disciplines, of the spectral and spatial recording of physical CH objects. Optimal recording, adapted to the requirements of a CH application, should involve experts from multiple disciplines and industries. Such an interdisciplinary approach is necessary "in order to protect, preserve, analyze, understand, model, virtually reproduce, document and publish important CH in Europe and beyond" [COSa]. In order to fulfil this goal, experts from 28 European countries entered into a multidisciplinary dialogue trying to establish a common understanding of spatial and spectral recording techniques best suited for particular CH applications. Several COSCH groups worked on the characterisation of spatial and spectral recording techniques; the use of algorithms and processing chains; and requirements of analysis, restoration and visualisation of CH surfaces and objects. A range of possible applications of optical techniques, now available to recording and examination of CH objects, have been tested through six COSCH case studies [BKM17]. These projects have exposed the challenges of common understanding of the processes involved, and differences in disciplinary research needs and methods. A number of issues have been identified, sometimes as basic as lack of common specialist terminology and relevant technical standards. The complexity of the field became apparent in the course of designing COSCHKR, ontological knowledge representation, which employs semantic technologies. After four years of interdisciplinary dialogue, COSCH leaves a legacy that will help the dialogue to continue, technology to develop, and specialist training to better respond to the actual needs of the interdisciplinary CH research communities.


SIVT - Processing, Viewing, and Analysis of 3D Scans of the Porthole Slab and Slab B2 of ZĂĽschen I

2016

Wefers, S.,
Reich, T.,
Tietz, B.,
Boochs, F.

BibTex

CAA2015 - Keep the Revolution Going. Proceedings of the 43rd Annual Conference on Computer Applications and Quantitative Methods in Archaeology.

Stadt und Tempel von Elephantine. 39./40./41. Grabungsbericht

2016

Wefers, S.,
Seidlmayer, S.,
Drauschke, J.,
Arnold, F.,
von Pilgrim, C.,
Kopp, P.

BibTex

Mitteilungen des Deutschen Archäologischen Instituts Abteilung Kairo

From autumn 2010 to spring 2013 the German Archaeological Institute and the Swiss Institute for Architectural and Archaeological Research on Ancient Egypt continued the investigation of the city and temples of Elephantine (Aswan). The preliminary report presents the results of some of the projects conducted during this period.
As part of the ongoing rehabilitation work at the museum buildings located on the island of Elephantine, excavations were conducted near the northeastern limit of the ancient town. Among the earliest remains found in the area is a well preserved section of the city wall of the late 2nd dynasty. Outside the perimeter of this wall Nile sediments dating to the Old Kingdom were identified, as well as settlement remains of the 6th to 12th dynasties. Several pottery kilns of the early Middle Kingdom were discovered here. A later city wall appears to have been constructed during the reign of Senwosret III and it seems to have existed until the early New Kingdom.
The documentation and study of the relief blocks originating from the Khnum temple of the New Kingdom was continued. Many of the blocks can be attributed to the temple house, the courtyard and the first pylon built by Thutmosis III, as well as to the festival courtyard which was added by Amenophis II. Some of the blocks appear to originate from other, so far unknown buildings of the temple complex, including a cult building of Thutmosis I and II, a barque station of Hatshepsut and a construction of Thutmosis IV.
The aim of another project has been the investigation of workshop areas of the Late Antique Period. During the excavation of a house dating to the 5th–9th centuries AD, evidence for the baking of bread, the keeping of animals and the production of granodiorite bowls has been found. Nearby an oven used for smelting non-ferrous metal was identified. Fragments of melting pots, casting molds and slag provide information on the production process.


The Late Antique and Byzantine Workshop- and Milling-complex in Terrace House 2 of Ephesos (Turkey) - Relative Chronology and Wheelrace Construction

2016

Wefers, S.

BibTex

Actes du colloque international, Lons-le-Saunier du 2 au 5 novembre 2011

The workshop and milling complex in Terrace House 2 comprises seven mills and one stone-sawing machine. Each were powered by a waterwheel. Based on the different features, it is possible to identify three building phases. The first comprised at least two mills powered by two independent waterwheels. The second had at least one mill. In the third phase five waterwheels drove four mills and one stone-sawing machine. In addition, it is possible to distinguish between two different types of waterwheel constructions.


Digital 3D Reconstructed Models – Structuring Visualisation Project Workflows

2016

Wefers, S.,
Pfarr-Harfst, M.

BibTex

igital Heritage. Progress in Cultural Heritage: Documentation, Preservation, and Protection 6th International Conference, EuroMed 2016, Nicosia, Cyprus, October 31 – November 5, 2016, Proceedings, Part I.

Cultural Heritage (CH) visualisations have to be understood as a combination of research sources, the contemporary historical and cultural context (Zeitgeist), project background and work process. All available information is collected, consolidated, filtered and assembled into a coherent picture. In case of digital 3D reconstructed models, the result is a digital data set that can be processed for different application fields. They are understood as a result of a complex creative process and as a synthesis of a CH research project, its CH context, the available research source material, and the modeling process itself. For all visualisation types in CH different conditions, factors, and basic rules apply to achieve a high quality result. Two examples are presented illustrating the structured view on visualisation projects as such. This paper seeks to differentiate the various research sources being the basis for digital 3D reconstructed models and defines work phases allowing a quality assessment. Furthermore, the potentials of including this structured view into the ontology COSCHKR currently under development is discussed. In combindation with traditional guidelines COSCHKR platform could open up new and flexible approaches.


Ein Industrieviertel im Zentrum von Ephesos - die WassermĂĽhlen im Hanghaus 2

2016

Wefers, S.

BibTex

BYZAZ

Die luxuriös ausgestatteten Wohneinheiten des am Nordhang des Bülbüldağ gelegenen Hanghauses 2 wurden im 3. Viertel des 3. Jhs. durch eine schwere Erdbebenserie zerstört. Statt die Wohnungen wiederaufzubauen, wurden bereits kurze Zeit nach der verheerenden Katastrophe mit Wasserkraft angetriebene Mühlen eingerichtet. Im Befund sind insgesamt acht Wasserradgerinne mit jeweils einer zugehörigen Mühlstube bzw. Werkstatt erhalten. Sie lassen sich drei Bauphasen zuordnen, die in das 4., 5./6. und Ende des 6./Anfang des 7. Jahrhunderts datieren. In der am besten erhaltenen Phase sind insgesamt fünf Räder hintereinandergeschaltet. Neben einer Steinsäge wurden vier Mahlgänge zur Mehlproduktion angetrieben. Eine große Personenanzahl konnte so mit dem wichtigsten Grundnahrungsmittel versorgt werden. Die Mühlenanlage wird in den städtischen Kontext von Ephesos gesetzt und mit anderen Mühlenanlagen verglichen.


Technical study of Germolles’ wall paintings: the input of imaging technique

2016

Ch., D.,
Wefers, S.,
Piqué, F.,
Papiashvili, N.,
Guery, J.,
Mansouri, A.,
Le Goic, G.,
Detalle, V.,
Martos-Levif, D.,
Mounier, A.,
Tedeschi, C.,
Cucchi, M.,
Vallet, J.M.,
Pamart, A.,
Pinette, M.

BibTex

Virtual Archaeology Review

The Château de Germolles is one of the rare palaces in France dating from the 14 th century. The noble floor is decorated with wall paintings that are a unique example of courtly love spirit that infused the princely courts of the time. After being concealed sometime in the 19 th century, the paintings were rediscovered and uncovered in the middle of the 20 th century and partly restored at the end of the 1990s. No scientific documentation accompanied these interventions and important questions, such as the level of authenticity of the mural decorations and the original painting technique(s) used in the medieval times remained unanswered. The combined scientific and financial supports of COSCH COST Action and DRAC-Burgundy enabled to study Germolles' wall paintings using some of the most innovative imaging and analytical techniques and to address some of the questions raised. The study provided significant information on the material used in the medieval times and on the conservation condition of the paintings. The data collected is vast and varied and exposed the owners of the property to the challenges of data management.


Development of a platform recommending 3D and spectral digitisation strategies.

2016

Wefers, S.,
Karmacharya, A.,
Boochs, F.

BibTex

Virtual Archaeology Review

Spatial and spectral recording of cultural heritage objects is a complex task including data acquisition, processing and analysis involving different technical disciplines. Additionally, the development of a suitable digitisation strategy satisfying the expectations of the humanities experts needs an interdisciplinary dialogue often suffering from misunderstanding and knowledge gaps on both the technical and humanities sides. Through a concerted discussion, experts from the cultural heritage and technical domains currently develop a so-called COSCH KR (Colour and Space in Cultural Heritage Knowledge Representation) platform that will give recommendations for spatial and spectral recording strategies adapted to the needs of the cultural heritage application. The platform will make use of an ontology through which the relevant parameters of the different domains involved in the recording, processing, analysis, and dissemination of cultural heritage objects are hierarchically structured and related through rule-based dependencies. Background and basis for this ontology is the fact that a deterministic relation exists between (1) the requirements of a cultural heritage application on spatial, spectral, as well as visual digital information of a cultural heritage object which itself has concrete physical characteristics and (2) the technical possibilities of the spectral and spatial recording devices. Through a case study which deals with the deformation analysis of wooden samples of cultural heritage artefacts, this deterministic relationship is illustrated explaining the overall structure and development of the ontology. The aim of the COSCH KR platform is to support cultural heritage experts finding the best suitable recording strategy for their often unique physical cultural heritage object and research question. The platform will support them and will make them aware of the relevant parameters and limitations of the recording strategy with respect to the characteristics of the cultural heritage object, external influences, application, recording devices, and data.


UAV photogrammetry and 3D analyses of CH sites. The millstone quarry district of Mayen (DE) as a case study

2016

Wefers, S.,
Atorf, P.,
Klonowski, J.

BibTex

W. Börner, S. Uhlirz (eds), Proceedings of the 20th International Conference on Cultural Heritage and New Technologies 2015 (CHNT 20, 2015)

Application and analysis capabilities of 3D data sets generated through UAV photogrammetry are presented on the basis of an exemplary millstone quarry of the so-called Mayen quarry district (Germany). In general, millstone quarries are technical cultural heritage sites which give evidence for economic interpretations as they are of interest for the reconstruction of ancient procurement patterns. Particularly those quarries which had a high economic impact cover large areas with often arduous accessibility. Therefore, photogrammetric recording using a UAV is the best approach for fast and inexpensive high-quality documentation. The images are used to create a 3D data set and orthophoto. For analysis and interpretation the Spatial Image analysis and Visualisation Tool (SIVT) of i3mainz is used allowing a variety of interactive visualization functionalities. The 3D data are transformed into 2.5D data enabling segmentation of spatial information and volume calculations. Both functionalities support the cultural heritage expert's research: On the one hand the interactive segmentation allows producing a map of the quarry displaying only those parts associated with the extraction. On the other hand the output of the quarry including debris and millstone blanks can be calculated easily. All in all, the entire workflow beginning with data capture using a UAV followed by data processing, (2.5D / 3D) data analyses and visualisation of the results is presented.


Ein Industrieviertel im Zentrum von Ephesos - die WassermĂĽhlen im Hanghaus 2

2016

Wefers, S.

BibTex

Drittes Wissenschaftliches Netzwerk der Abteilung Istanbul des Deutschen Archäologischen Instituts

Die luxuriös ausgestatteten Wohneinheiten des am Nordhang des Bülbüldağ gelegenen Hanghauses 2 wurden im 3. Viertel des 3. Jhs. durch eine schwere Erdbebenserie zerstört. Statt die Wohnungen wiederaufzubauen, wurden bereits kurze Zeit nach der verheerenden Katastrophe mit Wasserkraft angetriebene Mühlen eingerichtet. Im Befund sind insgesamt acht Wasserradgerinne mit jeweils einer zugehörigen Mühlstube bzw. Werkstatt erhalten. Sie lassen sich drei Bauphasen zuordnen, die in das 4., 5./6. und Ende des 6./Anfang des 7. Jahrhunderts datieren. In der am besten erhaltenen Phase sind insgesamt fünf Räder hintereinandergeschaltet. Neben einer Steinsäge wurden vier Mahlgänge zur Mehlproduktion angetrieben. Eine große Personenanzahl konnte so mit dem wichtigsten Grundnahrungsmittel versorgt werden. Die Mühlenanlage wird in den städtischen Kontext von Ephesos gesetzt und mit anderen Mühlenanlagen verglichen.


Produktion und Technik

2016

Wefers, S.,
Drauschke, J.,
Daim, F.

BibTex

Byzanz. Historisch-kulturwissenschaftliches Handbuch.

SIVT – Processing, viewing and analysis of 3D scans of the porthole slab and slab b2 of Züschen I

2015

Wefers, S.,
Reich, T.,
Tietz, B.,
Boochs, F.

BibTex

CAA

Semantic based Structuring of 3D technologies for their optimized use in cultural heritage documentation.

2015

Karmacharya, A.,
Wefers, S.,
Boochs, F.

BibTex

43rd Conference of Computer Applications and Quantitative Methods in Archaeology, CAA 2015, Siena, Book of Abstracts.

Constant technological progress results in new possibilities to produce reliable and rich spatial data of cultural heritage objects: for instance, museums have started to digitize their collections, more and more archaeological excavations or features and entire CH buildings have been documented in 3D. It is now necessary to establish connections among different CH disciplines and several technical disciplines, and to work on collaborative projects.

Technicians and CH experts together evaluate the best technique for specific CH object documentation, implementation and use. This discussion arises from the knowledge gaps of each counterpart in respect to the other discipline. Projects such as Agora 3D (see below) clearly demonstrate the need for an evaluation of the different available techniques.

In order to make optimal use of these technological capabilities, it is important to identify and name the information required to best serve the reasoning processes in these application fields. Correspondingly it is necessary to know about the characteristics of digitization techniques producing the content adapted to the needs of the applications. Due to the considerable complexity of instruments and processes producing the data, it is helpful to have a clear structure which relates the capabilities of the instruments to the requirements of the applications.

The COST Action TD1201 “Colour and Space in Cultural Heritage (COSCH)” takes this need into account, aiming to enhance the understanding among these disciplines. We will focus on the already listed, structured and evaluated available 3D technologies. At the same time, experts in spectral and CH research started to list, structure, and evaluate their knowledge. These evaluations yield a structure of technologies, and ultimately the techniques and instruments using their characteristics. The understanding of these characteristics provides insights for their potential applications. The ontology knowledge model accessible through so-called “COSCHKR App” provides a knowledge structure. It benefits from the development of semantic technologies from the Semantic Web framework. Semantics, which provide meanings, are captured through the conceptual structure and are defined through the ontology. The overall aim of this ontology is the development of a software tool to enable a better understanding of data acquisition techniques and their support to optimally realize cultural heritage applications.


Support of Petroglyph analysis through processing and viewing of 3D scans.

2015

Reich, T.,
Boochs, F.,
Wefers, S.,
Tietz, B.

BibTex

43rd Conference of Computer Applications and Quantitative Methods in Archaeology, CAA 2015, Siena, Book of Abstracts.

Traditionally stone inscriptions or drawings are documented through pictures or rubbings. The latter ones represent an analogue copy of the stone’s surface and its features which are reproduced on paper. The disadvantage of this technique is the physical impact to the stone and the contained elements. Images reproduce the surface without contact. However, they might be affected by geometrical distortions and need appropriate lighting conditions to show the signs properly.

These problems will be avoided by means of non-contact 3D measuring techniques, like fringe projection. Such high resolution 3D techniques provide an exact geometrical copy of the original petroglyph, offering better results in legibility compared to traditional techniques. Moreover, it gives a more objective base for analysis and has less impact on the sometimes sensitive and eroded surfaces. Furthermore 3D data allows more extensive and further possibilities in processing and gives better preconditions for the interpretation.

However, depending on factors like resolution, scanned surface and degree of overlap between individual scans original 3D datasets may represent large up to really massive volumes of data. An effective use of such datasets can only be realised if they are condensed and prepared in a suitable way. This means reduction of the data volume, minimising any disturbing influence emerging from the spatial shape of the surface and emphasizing relevant information. The corresponding preparation of the data will then be a good base for a interpretation performed by the human science specialist through an adapted visualization. In addition the data should be prepared for high performance presentation to a wider community via the internet.

Processed digital copies of the Petroglyphs are visualised in order to enable the user to inspect the processed scans of the objects. By inspecting the scans the application provides a mass of functionality for achieving different views into the Petroglyphs and their appearance. This comprises on the one hand a simple 2D viewer for the processed data, and on the other hand a 3D viewer with interactive changeable light positions and water levels as well as a viewer for applying various lookup tables (colour), predefined image filters (convolution) and template matching (matching) regarding individual characters.

Provided functionality of the 3D viewer is based on features of 3D computer graphics. Surface normal vectors from the grey values of the processed scans and a light direction vector from an interactively changeable light source are computed. In addition shading is complemented by water filling, whereby the gray values are limited by the water level selected. Individual modifications are possible to improve the subjective impression by the user, trying to support him in his process of interpretation. Interactive changes of the light source directly affect the shading of the surface and provide a better idea of the 3D surface of the inscription board. Dynamic virtual water filling enables the user to obtain an even better impression of the depth of the individual characters and emphasise weathered characters.

The paper will explain the developed techniques and document its potential at selected data sets.


Waffen - Gewalt - Krieg. Beiträge zur Internationalen Tagung der AG Eisenzeit und des Instytut Archeologii Uniwersytetu Rzeszowskiego - Rzeszów 19.-22. September 2012.

2015

Wefers, S.,
Karwowski, M.,
Fries-Knoblach, J.,
Trebsche, P.,
Ramsl, P.C.

BibTex

Beiträge zur Ur- und Frühgeschichte Mitteleuropas

Chaîne opératoire: de la carrière au produit fini

2015

Wefers, S.

BibTex

E. Hartoch (ed), Moudre au Pays des Tungri. ATVATVCA

Die Mühlenkaskade von Ephesos. Technikgeschichtliche Studien zur Versorgung einer spätantiken bis frühbyzantinischen Stadt.

2015

Wefers, S.,
Cramer, A.,
Heinz, G.,
BrĂĽdern, R.,
Waldner, A.,
SĂĽrmelihindi, G.,
Passchier, C.,
Mangartz, F.,
Menchen, K.,
Gluhak, T.

BibTex

Monographien RGZM

Dissemination Design of a 3D Documented Archaeological Feature in Ephesos.

2014

Wefers, S.,
Cramer, A.

PDF / BibTex

COSCH e-Bulletin

The paper presents different forms of documentation of a Late Antique and Early Byzantine water-powered workshop and milling complex in what is commonly known as Terrace House 2 in Ephesos, Turkey. The entire complex was documented by means of 3D laser scanning in 2009 and 2010. Geometrical data were processed and used in the form of a point cloud in the archaeological analysis. Narrow parts, complex structures, and small rooms of the well-preserved feature were surveyed efficiently using a 3D laser scanner. Additionally, panoramic images were captured. They offered the possibility to colour the point cloud, thus helping to identify and understand the feature better in the model. The developed consistent 3D point cloud of the entire feature provided the spatial data for analyses, reconstructions and technical drawings, such as ground plots and sectional views for publications.
In order to address specific questions, e.g. to determine the course of the chute, or the size and position of the water-wheels, it was essential to be able to work with complete geometric data. For that purpose the data were exported from original files, using a free software plugin, and made usable in an internet browser. The interface is easy to operate and allows measurement and marking of 3D distances and coordinates of single points, within one scanner position. These can be saved and exchanged. In addition, using this technique a selection of the 3D data will be made available to the general user.

http://www.cosch.info/publications/bulletin-1-2014


Millstones of Aswan red granite found on the island of Elephantine, Egypt.

2014

Wefers, S.,
Mangartz, F.

BibTex

AmS-Skrifter

In 2011, the millstones of Elephantine Island were documented. Elephantine belongs to the area of red granite at Aswan (the old city of Syene), which is mainly famous for its monumental building stones – e.g. the unfinished obelisk – but also provided a hard rock that served for making millstones. Therefore, it is not surprising that all the Elephantine millstones are made from red granite. There are signs of quarrying on Elephantine, but no special millstone extraction sites could be identified. However, the presence of roughouts within the documented millstones proves their production on the site, maybe also from thereabouts. Seven Olynthiantype top stones, of which two are roughouts and two are stones left in an early stage of work, were recorded – Olynthian-type lower stones have not been found. Amongst the rotating millstones, there is a type not yet described for Egypt: we call them pseudo-Pompeian-type millstones. Their cylindrical top stones reach up to 60 cm in diameter, amongst the five bell-shaped lower stones, there is only one roughout. For the reconstruction, we suggest a design similar to the German “Haltern-Rheingönheim” millstones. The pseudo-Pompeian-type millstones seem to date from Late Antique to early medieval times but could have been in use for a much longer period. Only one rotary quern was found on Elephantine. Two top stones of edge-runners served as mills for crushing olives and three huge granite beams were used as foundations for oil presses.


Characterisation of Spatial Techniques for Optimised Use in Cultural Heritage Documentation.

2014

Wefers, S.,
Karmacharya, A.,
Boochs, F.,
Wiemann, A.K.

BibTex

Digital Heritage Progress in Cultural Heritage: Documentation, Preservation, and Protection. 5th International Conference, EuroMed 2014 Limassol, Cyprus, November 3-8, 2014 Proceedings

Constant technological progress results in new possibilities to produce reliable and rich spatial data of cultural heritage objects. In order to make optimal use of these capabilities, it is important to identify and name the information required to best serve the reasoning processes in these application fields. Correspondingly it is necessary to know about the characteristics of digitization techniques producing the content adapted to the needs of the applications. Due to the considerable complexity of instruments and processes producing the data, it is helpful to have a clear structure which relates the capabilities of the instruments to the requirements of the applications. This paper addresses this topic and shows a way of structuring spatial techniques as well as how this structure can be related to applications in the field of cultural heritage.


Bilder - Räume - Rollen. Beiträge zur gemeinsamen Sitzung der AG Eisenzeit und der AG Geschlechterforschung während des 7. Deutschen Archäologenkongresses in Bremen 2011.

2013

Wefers, S.,
Fries, J.E.,
Fries-Knoblach, J.,
Later, C.,
Rambuscheck, U.,
Trebsche, P.,
Wiethold, J.

BibTex

Beiträge zur Ur- und Frühgeschichte Mitteleuropas

Geometrische Dokumentation von WT1 und WT2 in Ephesos

2010

Cramer, A.,
Mangartz, F.,
Wefers, S.

BibTex

Die byzantinische Steinsäge von Ephesos